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TEXAS CHIARASCURO: The Life and Work of Arthur S. and Marie H. Berger

TEXAS CHIARASCURO: The Life and Work of Arthur S. and Marie H. Berger
By Kurt Culbertson and Diane Del Cid

Arthur Schoene Berger [1903-1960] and Marie Harbeck Berger [1907-1963], were among the earliest practitioners of the modernist approach to landscape architecture pioneered by Thomas Church, Garrett Eckbo, and others.

Arthur S. Berger was born in Hartwell, Harvey County, Kansas, on December 19, 1903, the youngest of four children of Henry D. Berger and Magdelena Schoene.[1] He graduated from the University of Kansas with a degree in biology in 1925.[2] Berger distinguished himself at an early age, producing at 24 the first autoluminar photograph.[3] He was a distinguished student commended by the University for being in the top 6% of all students.

By 1927 Arthur traveled to Europe and was living at 14 Wendell Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, just off the Harvard University campus where he received his graduate degree in landscape architecture in 1928.[4] Berger was a finalist for the Rome Prize in 1929[5], won by Richard Coolidge Murdock.[6] Murdock’s drawings for the grounds of a colonial revival home carried the exposition at New York’s Grand Central Palace. A year later, Arthur was a finalists again, this time losing to Neil Hamil Park.[7]. After one year with the Long Island State Park Commission in 1930, he worked the next five years for Ferrucio Vitale. A native of Italy, Vitale was a classicist. Berger was then sent by the Vitale office to oversee the landscape construction of the Toledo Art Museum. This would have been the wings addition during the depression.

Berger traveled frequently from Ohio to lecture at the University of Kansas, and in 1933, was offered a teaching position in botany by President Malott. While declining the offer, he did assist the President with his plans for improvement of the campus. Mention the drive and reference Kessler’s plan.[8]

Encouraged to stay in the city by prominent Toledo residents, he formed the firm of Berger and Linnard with Lawrence G. Linnard [1901-1983].[9] [ Kurt to Connect Berger to Ellen Biddle Shipman at Stranleigh].[10] Linnard had also worked with Vitale in New York.[11] During their practice together from 1934 to 1937, they created the gardens of numerous large estates in the Toledo area including Elm House[12] in Perrysburg, Ohio, as well as, projects in Detroit and Cleveland. From 1937 to 1944, Arthur spent his summer in Toledo and his winters in Dallas, Texas. He established permanent residence in Dallas in 1939. The move was precipitated by the death of his brother Harry and a hard won commission to design the garden of Rancho Encinel, the residence of Texas Instrument founder, Everett Lee and Nell DeGolyer, Everett DeGolyer, an internationally renowned petroleum geologist and founder of Texas Instruments, on White Rock Lake.

[Kurt to describe briefly the state of Texas landscape architecture in 1939 – relating to his earlier presentation] Joe Lambert was the only major practicing landscape architect in Dallas. Richard Myrick arrived from Harvard in 1942.
With the outbreak of World War II, Arthur would contribute his skills to the Camouflage Branch of the United States Armey at Camp Belvoir, Virginia. There two events would change his life and his landscapes forever. The staff of Camouflage Branch was filled with naturalists, landscape architects and artists. The art of camouflage, a French work meaning “to conceal” had been pioneered by the French Army during World War I. At that time, artists were put into service in World War I to camouflage equipment and installations. Gertrude Stein famously reported the remarks of Picasso and Braque, viewing camouflaged military equipment on parade in Paris at the beginning World War I. “We did that,” Picasso said. “That is Cubism.” That may have been Cubism, which would have made the lovely lavender and pink lozenges of German Albatross fighter planes, fitted together like cells of a honeycomb, “hexagonalist.”[13] It was from these early pioneering efforts, as well as, study of trompe l’oile, that formed the basis of Arthur’s work in Virginia. It is also likely that he came in contact with many of the artist who contributed to the effort including Arshil Gorkey, Grant Wood, and Ellsworth Kelly. Study of the work of the early French cubists and collaboration with contemporary American artist would have no doubt challenged Arthur’s Beaux Arts training and shaped his conceptions of his own work.

Were that not enough to transformed a classically trained designer into a modernist another event in Fort Belvoir There he met a young landscape architect from Oregon, Marie Harbeck, who from 1942 to 1944, Marie contributed her design skills to the war effort. Marie Monica Harbeck was born in Seattle, Washington, on June 11, 1907.[14] A 1925 graduate of Grants Pass (Oregon) High School she graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Landscape Architecture in 1932 from Oregon State University, the last year in which a professional degree program in landscape architecture was taught there.[15] The landscape architecture program was then moved to the University of Oregon in Eugene to be part of the School of Architecture and Allied Arts. Professor Frederick A. Cuthbert, Marie’s long-time friend and mentor, who had chaired the program at Oregon State, also moved to Eugene in the transfer.[16]

Cuthbert assisted the young Harbeck in finding work initially with architect, Gardner T. Bailey from 1938-1940, and then in the office of Thomas Church in San Francisco. There she completed the design of the L.D. Owen Residence in Sausalito, as well as, numerous other projects. Cuthbert remained in contact with Marie during her days in San Francisco. Marie assisted with student visits to the Bay area and maintained a lifelong interest in the program at University of Oregon. She exhibited at the Architectural League of New York prior to World War II. Maria was also a designer of fabrics.

With the War’s end, Arthur convinced Marie to join him in Dallas in 1945, first as his business partner, and then as his wife. The two were married in Dallas on July 5, 1946, at the Highland Park Presbyterian Church in Dallas, Texas. They became known simply as as “The Bergers”, initiating a successful career in landscape architecture, with most of their work done in San Antonio, Dallas (Highland Park, University Park and Preston Hollow) and Fort Worth, Texas.

DeGolyer introduced the Bergers to Texas architect O’Neal Ford. Their first collaboration was the home of Frank Murchison in San Antonio. Arthur and Marie’s plan for the Murchinson landscape provided intimate and fluid connections between interior and exterior spaces by means of patios, terraces and long galleries. The collaboration was so successful that ‘the trio’ (the Bergers and Ford) were repeatedly contracted to work together on significant projects in Dallas, Arlington, Salado and San Antonio, Texas, as well as various cities and ranches beyond. The T. Frank Murchison residence became a Texas Mid-century Modern icon and consolidated a symbiotic relationship between Ford and the Bergers. The garden and the house were intimately linked to the land; the house, in a longitudinal plan, on the contour of the hillside captured the southeast breezes across the main axis of the house. Upon visiting this house and garden, it was confirmed that all the rooms opened to the gardens located on both sides of the house: one side faced the hillside; the other faced the view. The landscape architects shaded the house while accentuating the view from every room through large windows to view the gardens dressed with Live Oaks, and shrub plantings of Gardenias and Camellias, Lantana and Plumbago. The terrace walls were built with stones quarried at the site.

Here was the influence of Thomas Dolliver Church. But in the hot Texas sun, the lessons learned from Arthur’s early experimentation with photography and their experience with the camouflage corp were also present. Arthur would speak of their approach to design in a March 1949 issue of House & Garden “Drama, in the garden as elsewhere, is achieved by contrast. The placing of light and shade next to each other creates sharp images, with both light and shade having a greater intensity by their proximity. A garden feature seen in brilliant sunlight from shaded surroundings may be seem as dramatically lighted as though it were picked out by a spotlight on a dark stage. Shadow patterns on the garden floor may complete the dark frame of the overhead object which causes them. The multiplicity of shadow forms is legion, being limited only by the number and variety of materials which impede the sun’s rays.” [Diane what year did they do the Murchinson garden? Ford did the house in 1937 which was well before the war.]

This garden, Arthur and Marie’s first collaboration with O’Neal Ford, is perhaps the first modernist landscape in Texas. House and Garden writer , Dr. Joseph E. Howland, ___ would label the Berger’s approach to design “Texas Chiarascuro”. Unlike Thomas Church and others who promoted large terraces as a means to outdoor living, Howland noted that the Bergers foresaw the universality of air-conditioned space and the movement indoors it would bring.

Arthur and Marie understood the regional environmental conditions of Texas and began using native plants and materials often times native from the project site. The Bergers, (as they became known) were described by their patrons, friends and relatives as talented, charming characters.

George Dahl (residence of Robert Storey, Dean of SMU law school) Houston architect, John Staub (The Urshel’s Magnolia Hill in San Antonio), Harwell Harris (Dean of the school of architecture at University of Texas - on the State fair House Beautiful Pace Setter home). [Diane – I think we want to reference these designers but in their logical chronological order]

Another early significant Berger-Ford project was the Haggerty House in the Prestonwood area of Dallas where the terrace joins the gardens at the edge of their signature sinuously curved retaining walls. This home, like many other Ford-Berger projects was situated on a creek. Several other successful Dallas projects followed, such as the Merritt, Penson, and McDermott (guesthouse) residences and all exist in excellent condition today with minor modifications to the landscape. In San Antonio, another Murchison family residence, Tom Slick and Charles Urschel Jr. residences.

[Diane we need to discuss Trinity and Temple Emanuel as separate projects] The Bergers collaborated with many renowned modern architects such as William Wurster (the former Dean of the School of Architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT and later Dean at the University of California at Berkeley). Marie had undoubtedly met Meyer during her time with Gordon Dailey and Thomas Church in San Francisco [Diane I’ll elaborate about Meyer’s background and early work.]

Howard Meyer, (architect for 3525 Turtle Creek, Temple Emanu-El and the McNaughton residence in Dallas), [Diane how did they meet Meyer? We need a little background on Meyer and his work as an early Dallas modernist]

The Berger’s own home on Stonebridge Road over Turtle Creek in Dallas, completed in 1953, became an icon of mid-century modern landscape and architecture upon it’s completion. Designed by O’Neil Ford, with William Wurster consulting and Scott Lyons as project architect, the house was often described nationally as a model of taste and fashion.

A bi-nuclear plan linked their living quarters to their studio office. The gardens, as many of their landscape designs, was perfectly suited to the Texas climate; they developed a methodology that started with gardens that were seared by sun on arid land, but they always managed to create a green oasis. They encouraged rapid growth of the selected plantings by enriching the soil and then pruning the trees to grow high first, and then spread wide into umbrella-like canopies. The Bergers life-long crusade was to transform the harsh Texas terrain into magnificent and sophisticated oases of light, water and shade, utilizing a technique known as the ‘chiaroscuro’. An August 1957 House Beautiful magazine article stated that, “Five years ago, this house [the Berger’s own home] was out in the hot Texas sun [and] now, a leafy canopy of trees and vines, [created] a ceiling over the entire area, [that] shelters both house and surroundings. Real climate control! All of the one and a half-acre property was either paved or planted with evergreen groundcovers, paving patterns, and broad, graceful steps defining the entrance.” During the construction and building of the Bergers house, Texas was experiencing the most severe drought in recorded history, yet they were able to create a masterpiece in landscape architecture.

Other residential gardens included the the Fort Worth garden of Mr. and Mrs. O.P. Leonard, and San Domingo Ranch, the home of Texas oilman, Dudley T. Dougherty in Beeville, Texas. The couple also restored the gardens of Holly Hedges in Natchez, Mississippi, as well.
They designed numerous college campuses, including Trinity University in San Antonio and the Science Quadrangle for St. Mark’s School. Commercial and industrial work included the Texas Instruments Headquarters in Dallas, and the company’s offices on Speedway in Houston, the Dallas Furniture Mart, and the grounds of the Dallas Morning News. Other projects included the roof garden of the Dallas Public Library, a resort in Jamaica, and another resort in Salado, Bell County, Texas.

Mr. and Mrs. Berger welcomed and entertained many of the great names in contemporary architecture, painting, music and writing at their home on Stonebridge Drive. In addition to their talent and contributions to landscape architecture, the Bergers were heavily involved in Dallas arts circles. Arthur sat on the board of the Museum of Fine Arts as well as the Margo Jones Theater. His numerous reviews of garden and architecture books were enjoyed by readers of the Dallas Morning News. He frequently was a guest speaker for many garden club lectures, slide presentations and organized garden tours and festivals that featured their beautiful gardens.

After having accomplished a successful career and recognition in Dallas, in Texas, and in the USA, Arthur and Marie traveled to Europe in 1956 and participated in the International Landscape Architecture Exposition in Zurich, Switzerland. Their work was first featured in contemporary magazines of the era, such as House Beautiful and House and Garden and then later, by architectural writers such as David Dillon and Mary Carolyn Hollers George. They described the Bergers’ design philosophy as being “avid students of Texas indigenous forms, [ and used] of native stone that often were quarried at the construction sites, [creating an] intimidate relationship [between] the terrain, the architectural design, the climate and soil conditions. Together, they created a Texas Modern landscape style where the architecture and the landscape worked in unison becoming and masters of the chiaroscuro.

Over time they added partners, Houston B. Bliss and Dick Heiderich, who joined in their design efforts. Tragically, Arthur’s brilliant career was cut short by an automobile accident. At age fifty-six, as a result of a car-truck crash at Beltline and Preston Road in Dallas, Arthur died on August 14th, 1960. The Bergers were planning to leave in a few days for a three month tour to visit European landscapes.

After Arthur’s death, Marie never recovered from the loss of her husband and partner. She returned to her home state of Oregon and while visiting her sister, her brain tumor became progressively worse. On the eve of her departure [to Dallas to settle her affairs], she suffered a stroke and died on April 5, 1963.

Arthur and Marie died childless, but were interested in the welfare of youth. In 1948, Arthur established an endowed scholarship-loan fund in memory of his only sister, Emily, at the University of Kansas. Arthur stipulated that this scholarship, the largest beneficiary of his will, be primarily for female students as he thought his sister had faced particular difficulties as a woman. Additional scholarships were also established at Ohio State, at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas and in Marie’s birth-state at the University of Oregon and Oregon State University for landscape architecture and horticulture.

The Bergers achieved a very high level of design sophistication as modernists. Many of their projects still survive today as mature examples of their visionary work. Members of the Dallas Chapter of the American Institute of Architects presented a post-mortem tribute to Arthur by planting a Live Oak tree on St. John’s Drive, between Lexington and Alice Circle, as a gift to the City of Highland Park. The plaque at the bottom of the tree stated, “Planted in appreciation and acknowledgement of the landscape designs of Arthur and Marie Berger.”

Paul Horgan, Pulitzer Prize winner and writer of the Southwest, was quoted in an editorial in the Dallas Morning News shortly after Arthur’s death when he said that he ”.. spoke for many of Arthur Berger’s friends when he commented one day in a Berger Garden in Dallas “… a day in a Berger garden is a perfect work of art.””

Eugene and Margaret McDermott, who were good friends of the Berger’s as well as clients, donated the original, Van Gogh painting entitled “Banks of the River in Springtime” to the Dallas Museum of Art as a memorial in honor of Arthur Berger. Eugene McDermott stated in the Dallas Morning News on July 9th, 1961, “…may this be a fitting memorial to a man who sought out quality, who celebrated nature and left such beauty in the gardens he created”.

Marie was similarly lauded in her Dallas Morning News obituary by fellow landscape architect and associate, Houston Bliss, “her greatest flair was her ability to make lines sing in harmony and in relieving contrast. Her approach in design had an indefinable spontaneity and freshness, comfortable to comprehend and behold.”
Dallas, as well as the other cities where the Berger’s created gardens are fortunate to have had Arthur and Marie Berger as residents and landscape architects who had such a passion for nature and beauty and dedicated their personal and professional lives to helping make it what it is today.

Both Arthur and Marie were noted for their gentle personalities. They were adored by their clients with whom they closely collaborated in creating their gardens.

Over time they added partners, Houston B. Bliss and Dick Heiderich, who joined in their design efforts.

1. Berger, Arthur S. “Factory Management and Maintenance,” April, 1940.
2. Berger, Arthur, “Plan the Shadows in Your Garden,” House and Garden 95, March 1949, 118-119.
3. “O.P. Leonard Estate, Fort Worth, Texas” ,Condé Nast, June 1950.
4. “Berger’s Dallas Hilltop”, Interiors, February 1956, 78-83.
5. Howland, Dr. Joseph, Landcape Architecture, “Marie and Arthur Berger, A Tribute,” 1964. 266-270.
6. “The Berger Garden,” ASLA Southwest News, March 1965.
7. “ASLA Fellow Biographical Sketch,” Files of the American Society of Landscape Architecture, August 18, 1977.
8. Dillon, David, The Architecture of O’Neal Ford, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999, 35, 60,79,81,101.
9. Laurence, Dianne Susan Duffner, “A Symbiotic Relationship Between Mid-Century Modern Masters: The Collaborative Works of Arthur and Marie Berger, Landscape Architects and O’Neil Ford, Architect,” Master of Arts Thesis, University of Texas at Arlington, 2007.
10. “The Maynard Parker Collection,” Huntington Library, San Marino, California.

Major Projects:

1. Rancho Encinal, the DeGolyer Estate (now part of the Dallas Botanical Garden), 8525 Garland Road, Dallas, Texas 75128, [1937]
2. Elm House, the former home of Mr. and Mrs. Clare J. Hoffman, Perrysburg, Ohio [1938]
3. Stranleigh, the home of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Stranahan, Jr. 5100 West Central Avenue, Toledo, Ohio [1938 – Mills, Rhines, Belman, an Nordhoff, Architects] Now part of Wildwood Preserve, Toledo.
4. Trinity University, One Trinity Place, San Antonio, Texas 78212-7200 1(210)999-7011 [ab. 1948 -master plan by William Wurster and O’Neil Ford, Architects ]
5. The Restoration of Holly Hedges, Mr. and Mrs. Earl Hart Miller Residence, Natchez, Mississippi, [1949]
6. San Domingo Ranch, the Dudley T. Dougherty Residence, Highway 181N, Bee County, Beeville, Texas 78102, 1(361) 358-1244 [1950]
7. Temple Emanu-El, 8500 Hillcrest Road, Dallas, Texas, 75225 [1953-1959] [Howard Meyer, Max Sanfield, and William Wurster Architects]
8. Texas Instruments Corporate Campus, Dallas, Texas, [1955], [O’Neil Ford, Architect]
9. St. Marks School of Texas, Science and Mathematics Quadrangle, 10600 Preston Road, Dallas, Texas 75230-4000 [Marie Berger, 1961 – O’Neil Ford, Architect]
10. 3525 Turtle Creek High-Rise Condominums, 3525 Turtle Creek, Dallas, Texas 75219 [1957-58] [Howard Meyer, Architect]

[6] “Art: Prix de Rome,” Time, August 4, 1930
[7] “Little Savages, “Time, May 18, 1932


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